Notice: This website was a student project from 2009 and is no longer actively maintained. I’ve left these resources archived, but be warned they may be out of date or no longer relevant.

If you’re looking for more current information from Jessica Mevius, OTR, MOT, you can go to my private practice website — Therapy Squared (


Manual Muscle Testing (MMT)

Manual Muscle Testing


MMT is an assessment tool used to identify any muscle weakness that may be interfering or limiting occupational functioning. Identification of specific muscles or muscle groups with impaired function provides information for appropriate intervention. The examiner tests the patient’s motor strength by manually flexing/extending the patient’s limbs and asking the patient to resist the examiner’s movements. Muscles are then palpated and a MMT Score is given.31

Manual Muscle Test Scale:31

  • Grade 5: Moves through full ROM against gravity and takes maximum resistance.
  • Grade 4: Moves through full ROM against gravity and takes moderate resistance.
  • Grade 3: Moves through full ROM against gravity & is unable to take any added resistance.
  • Grade 2: Moves though full ROM in the gravity-eliminated position with no added resistance.
  • Grade 1: Tension is palpated in the muscle or tendon, but no motion occurs at the joint.
  • Grade 0: No tension is palpated in the muscle or tendon.

Where to Obtain

Descriptions are found online or in OT text books on physical dysfunction. See:

Radomski, M.V., Trombly Latham, C.A.(2008). Occupational Therapy for Physical Dysfunction. Baltimore, 3rd Ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Who is originally responsible for this Tool?

Many have published methods for Manual Muscle Testing. I’m unable to find MMT's original creator.

Assessment Comparison Matrix

Overwhelmed by all of the choices and assessment varieties? Included is a handy reference chart that will help in the decision making process.

Assessment Comparison Matrix